In Kabul, lawmaker Samiullah Samim said the district police commander, Abdul Jabhar, was among those killed.
The Taliban managed to flee with a large amount of weapons and ammunition.
Samim says retaliatory airstrikes killed 17 Taliban fighters.
The Taliban have in recent months been staging near-daily attacks across Afghanistan, inflicting heavy casualties on Afghan forces.
Authorities no longer regularly provide casualty figures but unofficial estimates say about 45 Afghan police or soldiers are killed or wounded daily. (Agencies)